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Brain Injury Glossary "E & F"

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   The pages linked in this section of our web site lists medical terms commonly associated with brain injury. Entries  in this glossary have been simplified for ease of understanding by lay persons. Terms in this section were drawn from Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 14th edition, 1981, Mosby's Medical and Nursing Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1986, The Merck Manual, 13th edition, 1977, DSM-IV.  See our Resources page for information on and links to these and other medical reference materials.
     Many of the entries below have been linked to corresponding pages of this site that contain related information on the topic. 
[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [ L] [M] [N]
        [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [ V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]
EDEMA - collection of fluid in the tissue causing swelling. 
    ELECTROMYOGRAM (EMG) - a test that records the responses of muscles to electrical stimulation. 
    ELECTRO-EJACULATION - a means of extracting sperm from men with erectile dysfunction by using an electrical probe in the rectum. The sperm can be used to fertilize eggs in the uterus or in a test tube. 
    EMOTION -  a complex feeling state with mental, physical and motor responses. 
    EMOTIONAL APPROPRIATENESS -  the correctness or suitability of feelings evaluated from an objective perspective. 
    EMOTIONAL BLUNTING-  a dulling of emotional response. 
    EMOTIONAL LABILITY - exhibiting rapid and drastic changes in emotional state (laughing, crying, anger) inappropriately without apparent reason. 
    EMOTIONAL NEED -  the desire in each of us for another person who is understanding, empathetic and supportive and with whom we can share our feelings of love, fear, anger, sorrow, anxiety, frustration and depression. 
    EMOTIONAL SUPPORT -  the recognition, understanding, respect and empathy of one person for another.
    ENCEPHALOGRAPHY- non-invasive use of ultrasound waves to record echoes from brain tissue. Used to detect hematoma, tumor or ventricle problems. 
    ENERGY -  the vigor to do work; the strength to perform strenuous activities. 
    ENVIRONMENT -  all of the things mental and physical that affect a person's life and survival. 
    EUPHORIA -  an exaggerated or abnormal sense of well-being not based on reality. 
    EVOKED POTENTIAL - registration of the electrical response of brain cells as detected by electrodes placed on the surface of the head at various places. The evoked potential, unlike the waves on an EEG, is elicited by a specific stimulus applied to the visual, auditory or other sensory receptors of the body. Evoked potentials are used to diagnose a wide variety of central nervous system disorders. 
    EXACERBATE -  to increase the seriousness of a condition marked by more intense signs or symptoms. 
    EXCITABLE -  emotional; nervous; agitate; sensitive. 
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS -  the capacities necessary to formulate, plan and carry out plans effectively. These functions are essential for independent, creative and socially constructive behavior. 
    EXTENSION - movement which brings the body or limbs into straight position. 
    EXTREMITY - arm or leg. 
FATIGUE -  a state of exhaustion; the loss of strength or endurance. 
    FEAR -  emotional reaction to the threat of danger; emotional reaction to immediate and evident danger. 
    FES (Functional Electric Stimulation) - the application of low-level, computer controlled electric current to the neuromuscular system, including paralyzed muscle. FES is used to enhance or produce functions such as walking or bike exercises. FES has been used in experiments to facilitate grip in individuals with tetraplegia, using a switch activated by shoulder shrug. Other uses include correction of scoliosis, bladder control, electro-ejaculation, phrenic nerve stimulation. 
    FLACCIDITY - a form of paralysis in which muscles are soft and limp. 
    FLATTENED AFFECT -  emotionally lacking; listless. 
    FLEXION - movement which brings body or limbs into a bent position. 
    FOLEY CATHETER - a rubber tube placed in the urethra, extending to the bladder, in order to empty the bladder. It is held in place with a small fulfilled balloon. 
   FRONTAL LOBE - front part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions." 
    FUNCTIONAL - the ability to carry out a purposeful activity. 

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