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Copyright © 1998 Head Injury Hotline
Brain Map

D. Mortz 
est. 2002

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     The brain has many parts including the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The brain is a very complex organ, it regulates every aspect of human behavior. Everything about ourselves and the environment is experienced through the brain. It has been described as a three pound universe. It is thought to house the seat of the self, the place where the sense of self resides. 

       Damage to the hippocampus interferes with the ability to store 
new memories. Likewise, the ability to use language recognize familiar faces, to count, read and many other higher functions are depemdamt on intact memory functions.Impairments in such basic functions are fundamental to personal identity.

        Wipe out one part of the brain and the person speaks fluent giberish; other damage interferes with the ability to recognize familiar faces. 

     The following represents primary brain functions and some of the common problems that result from brain injury. The brain functions as a interrelated whole, however injury may disrupt a portion of an activity that occurs in a specific part of the brain.

     Terms in parenthesis are the technical terms used to describe certain deficits. Click here to see a cross section of the brain Refer to our TBI Glossary for additional details. 

    Check our Health page for additional health and medical resources.

Click here or scroll down to go to the Brain Map below 

Illustration by McKenzie Illustrations

Frontal Lobes
Located, right under the forehead (anterior) the frontal lobes are involved in tracking and sense of self. Additionally, they're involved in arousal and initiations well as consciousness of environment 
reaction to self and environment 
Executive functioning and judgments 
Emotional response and stability 
Language usage 
Word associations and meaning 
Memory for habits motor activity
Impairments caused by head injury:
Sequencing - difficulties planning and completing complex tasks in correct order, such as making coffee.
Perseveration - repeating same actions and 
comments over without conscious awareness of having done so.
Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others.
Loss of flexibility in thinking, (mental rigidity).
Distractibility - easily distracted
Attention - difficulty focusing on tasks 
Concentration difficulties 
Mood swings - (emotional lability)
Changes in personality and social behavior 
Diminished abstract reasoning - imagination
Difficulty with problem solving
Expressive difficulties - language usage and word finding (Broca's Aphasia)
Loss of simple movement of various body parts (paralysis)

Parietal Lobes
located near the back and top of the head
the Parietal lobe is involved in:
Visual perception 
Tactile or touch perception 
Object manipulation 
Integration of sensory information that allow for understanding of a single concept
Goal-directed voluntary movements
Impairments caused by head injury:
Difficulties naming objects (Anomia)
Difficulties writing words (Agraphia)
Inability to attend to more than one object at a time
Inability to focus visual attention
Problems with reading (Alexia)
Poor hand-eye coordination 
Confusing left-right orientation 
Difficulty performing math calculations (Dyscalculia)
Difficulty drawing 
Poor visual perception
Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space (Apraxia) that leads to difficulties in self-care.

Temporal Lobes
Located on the Side of the head above ears
The temporal Lobes have to do with Intellect
Auditory perception (hearing)
Long-term memory 
Some visual perception 
Object categorization
Impairments caused by head injury:
Difficulty remembering names and faces (Prosopagnosia)
Difficulty understanding spoken words (Wernicke's Aphasia)
Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects. 
Difficulty with concentration 
Short-term memory loss 
Interference with long-term memory
Aggressive behavior 
Change in sexual interest 
Persistent talking (damage to right lobe)
Difficulty locating objects in environment.
Inability to categorize objects (Categorization)
Seizure disorders, auras and strange reveries

Occipital Lobes
Located at the back of the head (Posterior)
Visual perception 
Visual defects (Visual Field Cuts
Difficulty recognizing colors (Color Agnosia)
Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects.
Word blindness - inability to recognize words
Difficulty recognizing drawn objects
Difficulty perceiving movement (Movement Agnosia)
Loss of academic skills (reading, writing)


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Copyright © 1998 Head Injury Hotline